Other resources

Resources for Kōwhiti Whakapae social-emotional practices and progressions

Kaiako Guides

He Māpuna te Tamaiti – Supporting social and emotional competence in early learning

He Māpuna te Tamaiti is a resource designed for kaiako in early learning settings. It promotes proactive, intentional approaches to supporting the development of children's social and emotional competence. The book comes with a set of cards for use in daily practice and during professional learning conversations. learn more

Whānau Guides

Being Together | He Noho Tahi - Social & emotional learning in the home

He Noho Tahi - Being Together is a set of resource designed for whānau to foster their children's social and emotional learning in the home. This set includes videos, pamphlets and a poster in te reo Māori and English. learn more


Averill, R., Glasgow, A., & Rimoni, F. (2020). Exploring understandings of Pacific values in New Zealand educational contexts: Similarities and differences among perceptions. The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives 19(2), 20-35. 

Bigelow, K. M., Carta, J. J., Irvin, D. W., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2019). Teaching pyramid infant-toddler observation scale (TPITOS™) for infant-toddler classrooms. Paul H. Brookes.

Beneke, M. R., Newton, J. R., Vinh, M., Blanchard, S. B., & Kemp, P. (2019). Practicing inclusion, doing justice: Disability, identity, and belonging in early childhood. Zero to Three, 39(3), 26-34.

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2004). Children’s emotional development is built into the architecture of their brains: Working paper No. 2. http://www.developingchild.net

Clarke, L. R., McLaughlin, T. W., Aspden, K., & Riley, T. (2021). Supporting teaching practices to foster toddlers’ emotional literacy: A research note. NZ International Research in Early Childhood Education Journal, 23(1), 52-58. 

Clarke, L., McLaughlin, T., & Aspden, K. (2019). Promoting learning during toddlers’ peer conflicts: Teachers’ perspectives. Early Years: An International Research Journal, 39, 426-440. https://doi.org/10.1080/09575146.2017.1384919

Cherrington, S., Cooper, K., & Shuker, M. (2021). Beyond invisibility: Early childhood teachers’ inclusion of rainbow families. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49(6)1099-1111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-020-01121-w

Church, A., & Bateman, A. (2019). Children’s right to participate: How can teachers extend child-initiated learning sequences? International Journal of Early Childhood, 51(3), 265-281. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-019-00250-7 

Collie, R. J., Martin, A. J., & Frydenberg, E. (2017). Social and emotional learning: A brief overview and issues relevant to Australia and the Asia-Pacific. Social and Emotional Learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3394-0_1

Davis, B., & Dunn, R. (2018). Making the personal visible: Emotion in the nursery. Early Child Development and Care, 188(7), 905-923.

Deans, J. (2016). Thinking, feeling and relating: Young children learning through dance. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 41(3) 46-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/183693911604100307

Denham, S. A. (2006). Social-emotional competence as support for school readiness: What it is and how do we assess it? Early Education and Development, 17(1), 57-89. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15566935eed1701_4

Denham, S. A. (2023). The development of emotional competence in young children. Guilford Press.

Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Zinsser, K. (2012). Early childhood teachers as socializers of young children’s emotional competence. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(3), 137-143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-012-0504-2

Denham, S. A., & Brown, C. (2010). “Plays nice with others”: Social-emotional learning and academic success. Early Education & Development, 21(5), 652-680. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2010.497450

Derman-Sparks, L., & Olsen Edwards, J. (2019). Understanding anti-bias education: Bringing the four core goals to every facet of your curriculum. Young Children, 74 (5), 6-12.

Degotardi, S., & Pearson, E. (2009). Relationship theory in the nursery: Attachment and beyond. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 10(2), 144-155. https://doi.org/10.2304/ciec.2009.10.2.144

Duley, L., McLaughlin, T., & Sewell, A. (2018). Using puppets to support children’s prosocial thinking and action: “What would we tell Pig and Frog to do?”. Early Childhood Folio, 22(2), 20-25. 

Durie, M. (2004). Understanding health and illness: research at the interface between science and indigenous knowledge. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(5), 1138-1143.

Durie, M. H. (1985). A Māori perspective of health. Social Science & Medicine, 20(5), 483-486.

Durie, M. (n.d.). Māori health models: Te Whare Tapa Whā. New Zealand Ministry of Health. https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/populations/maori-health/maori-health-models/maori-health-models-te-whare-tapa-wha

Durlak, J. A., Domitrovich, C., Weissberg, R. P., & Gullotta, T. (2015). Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice. Guilford Press.

Elliot, E., & Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2011). Babies’ self-regulation: Taking a broad perspective. Young Children, 66(1), 28-32.

Fox, L., Hemmeter, M. L., & Snyder, P. S. (2014). Teaching pyramid observation tool for preschool classrooms (TPOT). Paul H. Brookes.

Gehl, M., & Bohlander, A. H. (2018). Being present: Mindfulness in infant and toddler settings. Young Children, 73(1), 90-92.            

Gillespie, L. (2015). It takes two: The role of co-regulation in building self-regulation skills. Young Children, 70(3), 94-96.

Glasgow, A., & Rameka, L. (2017). Māori and Pacific infant and toddler cultural pedagogy: Reclaiming a cultural lens. International Critical Childhood Policy Studies, 6(1), 80-95.

Goodman, A., Joshi, H., Nasim, B., & Tyler, C. (2015). Social and emotional skills in childhood and their long-term effects on adult life: A review for the Early Intervention Foundation. UCL Institute of Education, University College London. 

Guo, K. (2017). Immigrant children in the context of multicultural early childhood education. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 24(1), 13-19.

Herrmann, Z., (2021). Supporting resilience in ECE: Strategies for teachers. He Kupu,6(4), 20-31.

Jackson, J.C., Watts, J., Henry, T.R., List, J.M., Forkel, R., Mucha, P.J., Greenhill, S.J., Gray, R.D., & Lindquist, K.A. (2019). Emotion semantics show both cultural variation and universal structure. Science, 366, 1517-1522.

Kelly-Ware, J. (2018). The influence of Frozen: Young children, performative gender, and popular culture. Early Childhood Folio, 22(2) 3–7.

Knauf, H. (2019). Physical environments of early childhood education centres: Facilitating and inhibiting factors supporting children’s participation. International Journal of Early Childhood, 51(3), 355-372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-019-00254-3

Kurki, K., Järvenoja, H., Järvelä, S., & Mykkänen, A. (2016). How teachers co-regulate children’s emotions and behaviour in socio-emotionally challenging situations in day-care settings. International Journal of Educational Research, 76, 76–88.

Lagi, R., & Armstrong, D. (2017). The integration of social and emotional learning and traditional knowledge approaches to learning and education in the Pacific. In E. Frydenberg, A.J. Martin, R.J. Collie (Eds.), Social and emotional learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific (pp. 253-271). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3394-0_14

Lee, S., Adair, J. K., Payne, K.A., & Barry, D. (2022). Revisioning fairness as social justice in early childhood education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 50, 1083–1095. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-021-01233-x

Lewis, B. (2022). How literacy resources contribute to a gender inclusive classroom. Kairaranga, 23(1), 35-49.

Luafutu-Simpson, P. (2011). Exploring the teaching of effective approaches for assessing young Samoan children’s learning in early childhood centres: Developing an authentic Samoan lens. Ako Aotearoa. 

Macfarlane, A. H., Macfarlane, S., Graham, J., & Clarke, T. H. (2017). Social and emotional learning and Indigenous ideologies in Aotearoa New Zealand: A biaxial blend. In Frydenberg, E., Martin, A., Collie, R. (Eds.), Social and emotional learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific (pp. 273-289). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3394-0_15

Mackey, G., & de Vocht-van Alphen, L. (2016). Teachers explore how to support young children’s agency for social justice. International Journal of Early Childhood, 48(3), 353-367. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-016-0175-z

Matapo, J. (2021). Mobilising Pacific Indigenous knowledges to reconceptualise a sustainable future: A Pasifika early childhood education perspective.  Asia-Pacific Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education, 15(1). 45-63.

McLaughlin, T., Aspden, K., & Clarke, L. (2017). How do teachers support children’s social emotional competence: Strategies for teachers. New Zealand Council for Educational Research: Early Childhood Folio, 21(2), 21-27.

Ministry of Education. (1996). Te whāriki: He whāriki mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa. Early Childhood Curriculum. Learning Media.

Ministry of Education. (2017). Te whāriki: He whāriki mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa. Early Childhood Curriculum. Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education. (2019). He māpuna te tamaiti: Supporting social-emotional competence in early learning. Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education. (2020). Relationships and sexuality education: A guide for teachers, leaders, and boards of trustees. Ministry of Education.

Moffat., T. (2022). The beauty of universal design for learning (UDL) and why everyone in early childhood education and intervention should be using it. Kairaranga, 23(1), 66-73.

Morgan, K., & Kelly-Ware, J. (2016). You have to start with something: Picture books to promote understandings of queer cultures, gender, and family diversity. Early Childhood Folio, 20(1), 3–8.

Morgan, K., & Surtees, N. (2022). “I can be a girl if I want to”: Supporting or silencing children’s working theories during counter-heteronormative picturebook sessions in early childhood education. Waikato Journal of Education, 27(1), 133–146. 

Neha, T., Reese, E., Schaughency, E., & Taumoepeau, M. (2020). The role of whānau (New Zealand Māori families) for Māori children’s early learning. Developmental Psychology, 56(8), 1518-1531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000835

Nicolson, S. (2019). Identifying and supporting children through life changes. He Kupu, 6(1), 11-14.

Nikolajeva, M. (2013). Picturebooks and emotional literacy. The Reading Teacher, 67(4), 249-254. https://doi.org/10.1002/TRTR.1229

Rameka, L. K. (2015). Te Ira Atua: The spiritual spark of the child. He Kupu, 4(2), 82-92.

Rimoni, F., Glasgow, A., & Averill, R. (2022). Pacific educators speak: Valuing our values. New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Rose-Krasnor, L. (1997). The nature of social competence: A theoretical review. Social Development, 6(1), 111-135.

Rosanbalm, K.D., & Murray, D.W. (2017). Caregiver co-regulation across 
development: A practice brief. OPRE brief #2017-80. Administration for Children and Families, US. Department of Health and Human Services.

Stark, R., Gordon-Burns, D., Purdue, K., Rarere-Briggs, B., & Turnock, K. (2011). Other parents’ perceptions of disability and inclusion in early childhood education: Implications for the teachers’ role in creating inclusive communities. He Kupu, 2(4), 4-18.   

Tagoilelagi-Leota, S. F., & Utumapu-McBride, T. (Eds.). (2013). O pelega o fanau: Treasuring children. AUT University.

Tauoma, J., Tapusoa, E., Vili, M., & Stanley, A., (2020).  A leai se gagana, ua leai se aganu‘u, a leai se aganu‘u ona po lea o le nu‘u. Early Education, 66, 3-10.

Thompson, R.A. (2009). Doing what doesn’t come naturally: The development of self-regulation. Zero to Three, 30(2), 33-39. 

Thynne, A., (2021).  Building resilience: A multifaceted set of skills and attitudes. He Kupu, 6(4), 6-11.

Toso, V. M. (2011). Reconceptualising spirituality as a philosophy of practice for Pasifika early childhood education in New Zealand: A Samoan Perspective. Pacific-Asian Education Journal, 23(2), 129-138.

Ulloa, M., Evans, I. M., & Parkes, F. (2010). Teaching to care: Emotional interactions between preschool children and their teachers. New Zealand Research in ECE Journal, 13, 145-156.

Waters, M., Thomson, K., Hosie, T., Bargh, K., Berry, S., McLaughlin, T., & Wray, L. (2021). I am strong in mind, heart, and body and we are all connected; ki te kaha ahau me whakairo, me ngākau, me tinana, he wairua tatou katoa. Early Education, 67, 55-63.

Watson, R., (2020). It’s Time to Talk. An Agentic Approach to Eliciting Social Communication in Learners with Autism. Kairaranga, 21(1), 29-35.

Webster-Stratton, C. (1999). How to promote young children’s social and emotional competence. Sage.

Webster-Stratton, C. (2012). Incredible teachers: Nurturing children’s social, emotional and academic competence. Incredible Years Inc.

Wittmer, D. (2012). The wonder and complexity of infant and toddler peer relationships. Young Children, 67(4), 16-25.

Zakin, A. (2012). Hand to hand: Teaching tolerance and social justice one child at a time. Childhood Education, 88(1), 3-13.